Lapidaryforum.net

Please login or register.

Login with username, password and session length
Advanced search  

News:

Welcome new members & old from the Lapidary/Gemstone Community Forum. Please join up. You will be approved after spam check & you must manually activate your acct with the link in your email

Congratulations to ToTheSummit and his Condor Cab!

 www.lapidaryforum.net

Another cabochon contest coming soon!

Pages: [1]   Go Down

Author Topic: B.C. Rockhounding part !  (Read 382 times)

0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic.

edgarscale

  • Sr. Member
  • ****
  • Offline Offline
  • Posts: 414
B.C. Rockhounding part !
« on: July 31, 2018, 02:26:30 PM »

hope this works:  well...i'm unable to down load the file so here it is i part   PART 1:

RO C K H O U N D I N G
IN SEARCH OF EARTH’S TREASURES!

Ministry of Energy and Mines
Geological Survey Branch

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Questions About Rockhounding ...................................................1
What is a Rockhound? ...........................................................1
Who can be a Rockhound?.....................................................1
Why be a Rockhound? ...........................................................1
Where to be a Rockhound? ....................................................1
Rockhounding Is Fun!..................................................................2
Eight Ways to Make Rockhounding Fun ........................................3
Rockhounding is Fun...
1...if you know what to take ..................................................3
2...if you know where to look ................................................5
3...if you can take your treasures home..................................6
4...if you know what you found..............................................7
5...if you can remember where you found your specimens .......8
6...if you know how minerals form.........................................9
7...if you know what rocks to look at ...................................10
8...if you are not in the hospital...........................................12
Sources of Information..............................................................14
Rock and Mineral Identification............................................14
Books of Particular Interest.................................................14
Selected Publications ..........................................................15
Provincial and Federal Government Organizations..................15
Societies.............................................................................17
Glossary of Geological Terms ....................................................19
i
QUESTIONS ABOUT ROCKHOUNDING
What is a Rockhound?

A rockhound is defined as an amateur mineralogist, but really it’s
someone who enjoys collecting interesting rocks and minerals. The
term rockhound includes people who casually pick up something that
catches their eye and serious collectors who enjoy rock and mineral
samples at rock and gem shows around the country.

Who can be a Rockhound?
Anyone! If you’ve ever picked up an interesting-looking rock on
a walk or at the beach, then you have already begun!
Why be a Rockhound?
Because it’s neat to build a collection of minerals and learn what
they are and what they can tell us about the history of the earth
and the creatures that have lived on it. A perfectly formed crystal is a
beautiful thing, and there is always the possibility that you will make
an important discovery that may end up on display in your local
museum. Normally though, you’ll be able to accumulate a collection
that will draw the interest of all your friends.

Where to be a Rockhound?
British Columbia is a great hunting ground for the collector. The
geological forces which shaped our province also created many
ideal settings for the formation of fascinating and valuable minerals.
1
ROCKHOUNDING IS FUN!
Rockhounding is an activity that anyone can enjoy. Rocks are
everywhere and you don’t need much in the way of equipment to
get started. Therefore, any family outing can easily be turned into a
rockhounding expedition. Alternatively, rockhounding can be the
focus of major wilderness hiking trips.
Once you start learning about rocks and minerals, you will be amazed
at how interested other people are in what you can tell them. Everyone
has an interest in the earth and a rockhound has the advantage of being
able to satisfy some of that natural curiosity. Rockhounding can also
lead into lapidary (the cutting and polishing of rocks and minerals) and
jewellery making or perhaps into the scientific fields of geology, such
as paleontology, mineralogy and petrology.
It’s very satisfying to organize, catalogue, label and display specimens
you’ve collected and identified yourself. Your collection will be
unique and will continually grow and change as you go on collecting
expeditions or trade samples with friends and other collectors.
2
8 WAYS TO MAKE ROCKHOUNDING FUN!
Rockhounding is fun if you know what to take
Of course this will depend on how seriously you pursue your
hobby. Obviously, if you are planning a three day hiking trip to a
remote site, you will need all the gear necessary for such an undertaking.
However, for an afternoon’s collecting close to home you can get by
with much less.
Here are some of the basic items you will need to get started:
4 hammer: geologist’s pick or a mason’s hammer
(not a regular claw hammer as this might
chip when used on rocks)
4 chisels: 1/2 inch and 1 inch size
4 day pack: to carry tools, specimens and lunch
4 plastic bags: to hold samples
4 newspaper: to wrap samples. Fragile samples can be
wrapped in toilet paper or paper towels and
small samples can be stored in egg cartons.
4 safety glasses: goggle-type are best, but some plastic
sunglasses can double as safety glasses
4 notebook, pencils and marking pen
4 appropriate clothing, rain gear and sturdy shoes or boots
3
You may also want to consider taking some of the following items along:
4 hand lens: can be carried on a string around the neck
and is invaluable for looking at details
4 gloves: some rocks can have sharp edges
4 hardhat: if you are going in or near quarries, steep
banks or cliffs
4 extra tools: sledgehammer, wedges, screwdriver,
gardening tools, pry bar, rake and screen,
pointed shovel
4 extra maps: detailed maps of geology, topography, etc.
4 altimeter: if you are offroad, this will help fix your
position on a topographical map
4 survival kit: the same kit as you would carry for an
extended hike
4 map and compass: if you are venturing off the road or trail
4 geological guidebooks and geological maps
4 mineral and rock identification kit(see pages 7 and 24)
4
Rockhounding is fun if you know where to look
Geologically, British Columbia is very diverse. This is because it’s
actually made up of a lot of micro-continents that have become welded
onto the edge of North America over hundreds of millions of years.
This also partially explains the province’s ruggedness. Because of the
diversity of rock, the potential for mineral occurrences in British
Columbia is immense. Because of the ruggedness, much of the
province has not been adequately mapped or prospected. Thus,
British Columbia is a frontier for Rockhounds with countless exciting
sites waiting to be discovered.
The potential for mineral and rock collecting exists anywhere that
rocks are exposed. Rocks commonly outcrop along steep hillsides,
in gullies, river and stream beds, road cuts, building excavations and
quarries. Even where there is no solid rock, minerals may be picked
up from debris slopes, gravel deposits (river gravels and glacial
deposits), old mine dumps, beaches (lakes and the ocean), and arid
areas such as dried lake beds.
If you’re collecting on private land make sure you have the owner’s
permission. If you’re going on public land check to see if you need a
permit. Disturb things as little as possible. Close gates behind you, do
not interfere with livestock and fill in any large excavations you make.
DO NOT TRESPASS!
5
Rockhounding is fun
if you can take your treasures home
The easiest specimens to find are the ones that have already weathered
out of the rock. Always look around on the ground to see what’s there,
it can sometimes save you a lot of hammering.
Many good samples will not be as easy to obtain and you will have to
dig them out of the rock. Never try to pry your sample directly out of
the rock, it’s much better to take some of the surrounding rock as
well. This will protect the mineral and allow you more flexibility in
designing your displays.
Use the natural planes of weakness in the rock. Look for cracks and
drive in a wedge or chisel. Work around the sample, but not too close
or it might fracture. Take more rather than less, you can always remove
the excess later. Be patient, the mineral has probably been in the rock
for millions of years; it might take a while for you to get it out.
6
Rockhounding is fun if you know what you found
Different minerals have different properties and these can be used to
identify them. Often you will collect a mineral without knowing what
it is. Identification will have to wait until you get home and can study
it at leisure. But, the more minerals you collect, the better you will
become at identifying them. Some of the properties used to identify
minerals are colour, streak, form, cleavage, lustre, density, hardness,
magnetic response and reaction with acid. There are many books in
your local library which will provide you with the information you’ll
need to understand and use these properties.
It’s easy to put together a small rock and mineral identification kit that
will fit in your pack or pocket (see page 24). You will need:
4 hand lens: 10 or 15 power with a wide field of view.
4 penknife: As well as being useful for digging into soft
rocks, this is useful for determining hardness.
4 streak plate: Minerals often leave a streak when scratched
on a small, white, non-glossy ceramic tile.
This streak can be different from the mineral’s
colour and is useful in identification.
4 dilute (5%) muriatic acid (HCl): This should be carried in a
small, leak proof plastic dropper; otherwise
it will rot your clothes!
4 guide book: A good mineral identification book, listing the
properties of the minerals you are likely to
find (see the list of books given on page 14).
4 magnet
7
Rockhounding is fun if you can
remember where you found your specimens
Even the most extraordinary mineral treasure cannot remind you
where you found it. The first step when you find a specimen is to l a b e l
and record where it came from. First you need to create a number for it.
This should be systematic, perhaps using your initials, the date and a
locality code. Then you have to mark the number on the sample.
Sometimes this can be done with masking tape and a marker or a
piece of paper can be put in the sample bag. In either case the bag
itself should also be marked.
In your notebook, you should record the same sample number, plus
an identification (if you know it at the time) and the date, location,
and a description of the rock in which you found the mineral.
After you get home, you should clean your specimens. Excess rock
can be carefully chipped off. Old dental tools are good for detailed
work. Dirt can be washed off with soapy water and a toothbrush and
a permanent label attached. A good way to label your minerals is to
paint a small white strip in an inconspicuous place and write your
sample number on the white paint.
The permanent sample number should be written on a card or in a
catalogue along with the information from your field book and whatever
else you have been able to find out about the specimen. The
specimen can then be stored in a drawer or displayed for all to see.
8
Rockhounding is fun
if you know how minerals form
Finding a rock exposure is only the first step in Rockhounding. It
helps to know what kinds of minerals you are likely to find in different
types of rock.
Firstly, minerals need space to grow. The chemical, physical and
temperature conditions might be just right, but if there’s no room
for a crystal to grow it won’t form. Cavities are found in all rock types.
Sometimes they are related to the rock itself (such as the gas bubbles
which form in a cooling lava, or hollow concretions and nodules in
sediments), or they may be the result of something which happened
after the rock formed (cracks and fissures due to faulting and folding).
Veins and dikes are prime hunting-ground for mineral specimens. Both
form as sheet-like bodies cutting other rocks and commonly contain
larger than normal crystals, or may be composed of a single valuable
mineral. The forces which create veins and dikes may result in cavities
which can later fill with good mineral crystals.
9
Rockhounding is fun
if you know what rocks to look at
All rock types have the potential to contain interesting mineral
specimens. However, different rocks contain different minerals
and knowing which is which allows you to use geological maps and
to zero in on areas that are likely to be interesting.
Igneous rocks are formed by the crystallization of molten material
(magma) from deep within the earth. If the magma reaches the surface
it cools quickly, forms small crystals and is termed extrusive
(e.g. basalt lava). If the magma does not reach the surface it cools
slowly, forms large crystals and is termed intrusive (e.g. granite).
Pegmatite is a good example of an intrusive igneous rock. It commonly
occurs as dikes associated with granitic rocks and generally consists
of large crystals of quartz, feldspar and biotite, however, some
pegmatites also contain large crystals of tourmaline, beryl, garnet,
spodumene, fluorite and muscovite. Pegmatites occur near Kootenay
Lake, Blue River, Canal Flats, Revelstoke and many other places in
British Columbia.
Basalt is an extrusive igneous rock. It commonly contains cavities
resulting from gas bubbles which were trapped as the rock cooled.
These cavities (amygdules) may contain agate, quartz, amethyst,
chalcedony, calcite and zeolites. When the mineralized cavities weather
out they are called geodes or thunder eggs. Basalts may be easily found
around Kamloops, Princeton, Fort St. James and on Vancouver,
Quadra, Texada and Lasqueti Islands.
Sedimentary rocks are formed by the compaction of sediments such as
sand, gravel or clay, or by chemical precipitation to form rocks such
as chert or travertine.
Chert and jasper are found on Vancouver Island, and around
Keremeos, Kamloops, Ollala, Barriere, Cassier, Kaslo, Fort Fraser and
10
Williams Lake. Rhodonite is sometimes also found at these locations.
Travertine occurs in limestones near Clinton, Lillooet, North Bend and
Chilliwack. Gypsum forms chemically in sediments and can be found
at Windermere, near Osoyoos and around Fort St. John.
Metamorphic rocks are formed by the alteration of already existing
rocks, either igneous or sedimentary. High pressures and/or
temperatures usually bring about the changes in mineralogy. The
minerals present in metamorphic rocks depend upon the original
rock type.
Metamorphosed ultramafic rocks may alter to serpentinite which
can be associated with jade, soapstone, rhodonite, idocrase and
chalcedony. Jade is found at Cassiar, Kutcho Creek, Dease Lake,
Ogden Mountain and in the Bridge River area.
Marble is metamorphosed of limestone and may contain garnet,
s c a p o l i t e, tourmaline, epidote and wollastonite. Schists and gneisses
may contain garnet, staurolite, sillimanite, andalusite, kyanite, rutile,
corundum and spinel. Collecting areas include Kinbasket Lake,
Vernon and Kootenay Lake.
These are by no means all the minerals found in the rocks of British
Columbia. Use the publication list on pages 14 and 15 or talk to a
geologist in the B.C. Geological Survey Branch (see page 16) to
discover what can be found in your area.
11
Rockhounding is fun if you are NOT in the hospital
Old mine sites, quarries and gravel pits are potentially dangerous
places. There can be shafts and holes hidden by vegetation, cliffs and
mined slopes that are unstable and likely to collapse, and complex
underground tunnels filled with poisonous gases. Always be aware of
the possible dangers around you.
Never enter these old workings to collect minerals and always let
someone know where and when you’re going on rockhounding
expeditions. You should always collect with a friend!
Even if your surroundings seem safe, LOOK UP!
4 Are there any loose rocks which your hammering might
bring down?
4 Watch for rockfalls and never walk directly above or below
another person on a slope.
Check your hammer.
4 Does the head look like it is about to fly off and injure you or
your buddy?
4 Always hammer away from yourself.
4 Are you wearing your safety glasses?
Always carry a first aid kit and learn what to do if you or someone
with you gets hurt.
If you’re going into the backcountry, learn how not to get lost, learn
what to do if you DO get lost and learn basic wilderness survival.
4 Follow obvious geographical features (ridges, creeks, rivers)
which take you in the right direction.
4 Keep a mental note of landmarks you pass (a fallen tree, the
number of creeks crossed).
12
4 Trust your compass.
4 If possible, talk to someone who has recently been where
you plan to go.
4 Let someone know where you’re going and check in with
them when you are safely back.
4 Avoid getting wet unnecessarily.
Know how to react to any wild animals you may meet.
Carry emergency gear, dress appropriately, check the weather and
allow enough time for all you want to do.
13
SOME SOURCES OF INFO R M AT I O N
Rock and mineral identification
The pictures in the following books show exciting examples of each
mineral, but not necessarily the way you will find them. However,
they do list all the properties of each mineral which will help you to
make an accurate identification. Most are available in your local library
or through your bookstore.
A Field Guide to Rocks and Minerals
by F.H. Pough (The Peterson Field Guide Series).
The Larousse Guide to Minerals, Rocks and Fossils
by W.R. Hamilton, A.R. Wooley and A.C. Bishop.
The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Rocks
and Minerals
by C.W. Chesterman.
Books of particular interest
Rockhounding and Beachcombing on Vancouver Island
by Bill and Julie Hutchison (1975), Tom and Georgie Vaulkhard,
The Rockhound Shop, Victoria, B.C.
Collecting Minerals
by Bill Ince (1977), McClelland and Stewart Limited, Toronto.
Guide to Rocks and Minerals of the Northwest
by Stan and Chris Leaming (1986), Hancock House, Surrey B.C.
The Agates of North America
by Hugh Leiper (1961), The Lapidary Journal, Del Mar, California.
Treasure Hunting in British Columbia
by Ron Purvis (1971), McClelland and Stewart Limited, Toronto.
Rock and Mineral Collecting in British Columbia
by S. Leaming (1973), Geological Survey of Canada Paper 72-53.
Rocks and Minerals for the Collector–The Alaska Highway;
Dawson Creek, British Columbia to Yukon/Alaska Border
by Ann P. Sabina (1973), Geological Survey of Canada Paper 72-32.
Logged



50% rockhound and 50% wire wrap
       ='s one great pendant
Pages: [1]   Go Up
 

Page created in 0.085 seconds with 27 queries.