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Author Topic: B.C. Rockhounding Prt 2  (Read 643 times)

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B.C. Rockhounding Prt 2
« on: July 31, 2018, 02:28:30 PM »

Selected publications
Information Motherlode–Geological Source Material for B.C .
This publication lists B.C. Museums, Gem and Lapidary Clubs
and Mineral and Lapidary Dealers. Information Circular 1991-7;
free on request from the B.C. Geological Survey Branch.
Introduction to Prospecting
by E.L. Faulkner, B.C. Ministry of Energy, Mines and
Petroleum Resources, Paper 1986-4.
The Identification of Common Rocks
by E. Van der Flier-Keller and W.J. McMillan (1987),
B.C. Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources,
Information Circular 1987-5.

Provincial and Federal Gove rnment Organizations
The Geological Survey Branch of the B.C. Ministry of Energy, Mines
and Petroleum Resources is a good resource for anyone interested in
the geology of the province. Their publications are distributed by:
Crown Publications Inc.
546 Yates Street Phone: (604) 386-4636
Victoria, B.C. V8V 1K8 Fax: (604) 386-0221
B.C. and Yukon Chamber of Mines
840 West Hastings Street Phone: (604) 681-5328
Vancouver, B.C. V6C 1C8 Fax: (604) 681-2363
Topographic maps and air photos are available from:
Maps B.C.
Surveys and Resource Mapping Branch
Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks
1802 Douglas Street Phone: (604) 387-1441
Victoria, B.C. V8V 1X4 Fax: (604) 387-3022
The Ministry of Tourism (Victoria) publishes a list of clubs and
dealers in the province. They also publish:
Gem Hunting and Gold Panning
British Columbia Product Guide No. 19 (updated every year)
Rock and Mineral sets are available from the
B.C. Museum of Mining at Britannia Beach Phone: (604) 896-2233.
General information on the geology in your area may be obtained
from any B.C. Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources’
(MEMPR) Government Regional Geologist’s office or from the
Geological Survey Branch in Victoria.
MEMPR-Regional Geologist MEMPR-Regional Geologist
1652 Quinn Street 1113 Baker Street
Prince George, B.C. V2N 1X3 Cranbrook, B.C. V1C 1A7
Phone: (604) 565-6125 Phone: check local listings
MEMPR-Regional Geologist MEMPR-Regional Geologist
#200, 2985 Airport Drive Bag 5000
Kamloops, B.C. V2B 7W8 Smithers, B.C. V0J 2N0
Phone: (604) 828-4566 Phone: (604) 847-7391
MEMPR-Regional Geologist Geological Survey Branch
Mineral Titles Branch 5th Floor
Room 301, 865 Hornby Street 1810 Blanshard Street
Vancouver, B.C. V6Z 2G3 Victoria, B.C. V8V 1X4
Phone: (604) 660-2672 Phone: (604) 952-0382
The best way to learn is to join a Rockhounding club if there is one in
your area. The people in these clubs will share the same interests and
will be glad to help you get started. They may even run organized trips
to nearby localities.
Mineral hobby magazines (Canadian Rockhound, Lapidary Journal,
Gems and Minerals) are also good sources of information. Local lapidary
and gem dealers are often collectors themselves and museums have
collections of rocks and minerals to examine.
Publications of the Gem and Mineral Federation of Canada are available
from affiliated clubs and societies or from:
Maxine Lewis (secretary)
3492 Dundas Street
Vancouver, B.C. V5K 1R8
A complete list of affiliated clubs in B.C. can be obtained by writing to:
The Lapidary, Rock and Mineral Society of B.C.
941 Wavertree Road
North Vancouver, B.C. V7R 1S4
agate A translucent, extremely fine-grained variety of quartz
which is characterized by colours arranged in alternating
bands, in irregular clouds or in moss-like forms. Usually
forms in vugs or cavities in volcanic rocks.
amethyst A pale purple-to-violet variety of crystalline quartz. The
colour is due to iron compounds.
amygdule A gas cavity or vesicle in an igneous rock which is filled with
secondarymineral such as quartz, calcite, chalcedony or
zeolite. An agate pebble could be referred to as an amygdule.
andalusite A brown, yellow, green, red or grey mineral which occurs
in thick, nearly square prisms in schists, gneisses and rocks
altered by heat and pressure.
arid area Areas, such as deserts, which have little or no rainfall.
basalt A general term for dark coloured volcanic rocks composed
chiefly of the minerals plagioclase and clinopyroxene.
basalt lava Basaltic rocks which are formed as lavas on the earth’s
s u r f a c e .
beryl A green or bluish-green mineral which includes the varieties
known as emerald, aquamarine, heliodor and golden beryl.
biotite A common and important rock-forming mineral which
belongs to the mica group of minerals. It is generally black
or dark brown and has a characteristic platy form and can
be split into very thin, transparent layers with a fingernail
or sharp knife.
calcite A common rock-forming mineral, CaCO3. It is usually
white or colourless and is very soft. Calcite usually fizzes
in weak hydrochloric acid (muratic acid) and this is a test
used by geologists to see if a mineral is calcite.
cavities Small, usually rounded openings found in volcanic or
sedimentary rocks. Frequently cavities may be filled with
quartz or calcite to form geodes or nodules.
chalcedony A very fine grained, or cryptocrystalline, type of quartz
which forms concretionary (rounded) masses. Chalcedony
is contained in most chert.
chemical A process by which molecules are deposited out of fluids
precipitation to form rocks or minerals. Agates and cherts are commonly
thought of as chemical precipates.
chert A dark, extremely dense very fine grained, or cryptocrystalline,
sedimentary rock consisting dominantly of quartz,
usually the chalcedony variety.
cleavage The crystal planes of a mineral along which it tends to
concretion A hard compact mass or aggregate of mineral matter
which is normally rounded but may be very odd shaped.
They are usually formed by chemical precipitation.
corundum A very hard mineral composed of aluminum and oxygen,
A l2O3, which is used as an industrial abrasive. Gem varieties
include ruby and sapphire.
crystal A solid body of a single chemical element or compound
which has a regular shape and which has a surface defined
by flat faces. Quartz, emeralds and diamonds are naturally
occurring minerals which form crystals.
debris slope This is the material at the base of a high cliff or slope
which is composed of fragments and boulders of the rocks
and minerals which have been weathered from the cliff
face above. May also be referred to as a talus slope.
dried lake bed Material composed of lake sediments which is left after
lake waters have evaporated or drained off. Salt is a
common mineral which forms in the beds or sediments
of a lake which dries up.
epidote A yellowish-green mineral which commonly occurs in limestones
which have been metamorphosed, or altered by heat.
excavation Trenches, adits, pits and other workings created by
prospectors, miners or Rockhounds to dig out interesting
minerals or rocks.
extrusive This is a molten rock which is forced out on to the surface
of the earth to cool. An intrusive rock, on the other hand,
is one which cools from a magma stage to a hard rock
somewhere below the earth’s surface.
faulting Flat or planar features along which the earth’s crust b r e a k s
and moves. Earthquakes are normally caused by movement
of one rock against another along a fault.
folding Although most people don’t realize it, rocks are quite plastic
over hundreds of thousands of years. The normal movement
of the earth’s crust results in much pressure which in
many cases will fold rocks. Much the same thing happens
if you take a blanket, lay it flat on a floor and then push
one edge towards the other with your hands–the blanket
folds in a short time; rocks do the same over thousands or
millions of years.
feldspar Feldspars are the most common, rock-forming minerals
and constitute 60 percent of the earth’s crust. They
include gem varieties such as labradorite and they
weather over time to produce clays.
fissure A surface or crack in the rocks along which there is a
distinct separation. Fissures commonly result from movements
caused by earthquakes. Old fissures are commonly
filled with minerals such as quartz and calcite.
fluorite A transparent to translucent, relatively soft, mineral found in
many different colours. It is commonly found in association
with ores of lead, tin and zinc metals and it may occur in
large enough masses to be carved of ornamental objects.
garnet Garnet is a name for a group of very similar minerals,
including varieties known as almandine, andradite. It is
usually red or orange in colour and is commonly used as an
abrasive. Large garnets, particularly dark red ones, may be
cut as semi-precious stones; a variety called pyrope is a
beautiful mauve to purple colour and is commonly
associated with diamond deposits.
gem Any rough natural material that can be fashioned into a
geode or A hollow, or partially hollow, rounded body. They a r e
thunder eggs normally found in limestones and are characterized by an
outer layer of dense chalcedony and an internal cavity which
may be partly or wholly filled with inward-projecting
Geological A part of the British Columbia Ministry of Energy, Mines
Survey Branch and Petroleum Resources which carries out geological
mapping and scientific research. Information collected
by the geologists who work for the branch is used for
environmental, land-use and mineral development activities
in the province.
geology The study of the earth and planets, the materials of which
they are made, the processes that act on these materials,
the products formed, and the history of the planet and its
life forms.
glacial deposits Material which was laid down as sediments or debris by
glaciers. This normally includes gravels and sands.
gneisse A banded, or foliated, rock formed by heat and pressure.
granite A term loosely applied to any light-coloured, coarse grained
plutonic rock containing quartz, as a major component,
with feldspar and dark minerals. Plutonic rocks are those
which cool beneath the earth’s surface over a long period
of time and which therefore tend to be composed of coarse
sized mineral crystals.
gullies Depressions formed in the landscape by streams and
creeks eroding soils, gravels and surficial sediments.
gypsum The commonest sulphate mineral, CaSO4. 2 H2O. Frequently
associated with halite (salt) and anhydrite in evaporites
(sediments formed by evaporation of water). Gypsum is
very soft, white or colourless but commonly has grey, red
or brown tints. It is used to make plaster of paris.
idocrase Idocrase, or vesuvianite, is a brown, green or yellow
mineral found in limestones which have been “baked”
by hot intrusive rocks. Also known as “California Jade.”
igneous rocks Rocks which are formed by molten magma either at or
below the earth’s surface.
intrusive Rocks which intrude or cut across other rocks. They
normally “intrude” these other rocks as molten magma
and then cool to form volcanic or plutonic rocks.
jade A hard, extremely tough, gemstone consisting of the
pyroxene mineral jadeite, or the amphibole mineral
nephrite. May range in colour from dark-to-deep green
to a dull or greenish white. It takes an excellent polish and
is used for jewelry and carved articles. “California Jade” is a
compact form of vesuvianite.
jasper A variety of chert associated with iron ores. Characteristically
red but yellow, green, brown and black varieties are known.
kyanite A blue or light green mineral which occurs in long, thin,
bladed crystals in schists, gneisses and granite pegmatites.
lava Hot, molten rock which has been forced out upon the
surface of the earth and which normally flows like
molasses downhill .
limestone A sedimentary rock consisting chiefly of calcium carbonate.
Limestones are formed by a variety of processes. Most
notably they are created by the organisms which build
coral reefs in relatively shallow ocean waters.
lustre The reflection of light from the surface of a mineral
described by its quality and intensity. Terms such as metallic
or resinous, bright or dull may be used to describe the lustre
of a mineral.
m a g m a Rocks which are molten liquid due to high heat and
marble A metamorphosed limestone in which the calcium carbonate
has become crystallized and will polish well.
metamorphic Rocks which are changed by pressure, temperature o r
rocks chemicals to form new types of rocks. This normally
means that the minerals which compose one rock type
are recrystallized to form new minerals.
m i c r o - c o n t i n e n t A small, independent group of rocks which may be
t r a n s p o r t e d and welded onto a larger continent. British
Columbia is composed of many “micro-continents” which
have been attached to the western edge of North America.
Modern-day examples could be Vancouver Island or the
Queen Charlottes which are being transported towards
the mainland and (in several million years) will actually
become part of it.
mine dump The waste rock, or gangue, left over from a mining
operation. Usually the ore, or mineral of value, is extracted
from the rocks and the waste is piled up as a mine dump,
or tailings.
mineralogist A geologist who specializes in the study of minerals.
mineralogy The study of rock forming minerals.
mineral A naturally occurring, inorganic element or compound having
an orderly internal structure and characteristic chemical
composition, crystal structure, and physical properties.
muriatic acid This is a common term for hydrochloric acid.
muscovite A member of the mica family of minerals. It is similar to
nodule A fragment of a coarse-grained igneous rock which is
enclosed within another extrusive or intrusive igneous rock.
outcrop A geologist’s term for the area in which rocks are exposed
at the earth’s surface.
paleontology The study of life and its environments in past geologic time
based on fossil plants and animals.
pegmatite Very coarse grained plutonic rock similar to granite in
chemistry but characterized by very large mineral crystals.
Some pegmatites have feldspar, quartz or other mineral
crystals up to a metre or more in size.
petrology A branch of geology which deals with the origin,
occurrence, structure, and history of rocks.
properties The characteristics of rocks or minerals by which they
may be identified.
prospected The process or activity by which a geologist or prospector
examines and evaluates an area for valuable minerals.
pry bar A crow-bar which can be used to free minerals from their
host rocks.
quartz An important rock-forming mineral composed of silica.
rake Rake or pitch is the angle between the horizontal and any
linear feature along the direction of the linear feature.
rhodonite A pale-red or rose-red mineral of the pyroxenoid group of
minerals. It is commonly used as an ornamental stone and
polishes well.
road cuts An excavation along or through a hill which is used to
build a road.
rock A kit composed of the tools and materials needed to
i d e n t i f i c a t i o n test rocks and minerals to determine their properties.
k i t Typically such a kit would include a knife, a streak-plate,
weak hydrochloric acid, a magnifying lens and a magnet
(see page 7).
rutile A reddish-brown mineral which commonly occurs in
quarts (e.g., rutillated quartz). In large concentrations it
may be an ore of titanium.
schist A strongly foliated crystalline rock which can be readily
split into flakes or slabs.
sedimentary A rock which has resulted from the consolidation of loose
rock sediment that has accumulated in layers. Examples are
sandstone, shale, conglomerate and siltstone.
serpentine A group of rock-forming minerals which have a greasy or
silky luster, a soapy feel and which are usually dark green
to black in colour.
sillimanite A mineral which occurs in long, slender needle-like crystals.
soapstone A metamorphic rock composed essentially of talc which is
used extensively for carvings and jewellery.
spinel A very hard, gemstone. Varies widely in colour from
colourless, to purple-red, green and black.
spodumene A white-to-green prismatic mineral which may occur as
very large crystals in pegmatites.
staurolite A brown-to-black mineral crystal. Twinned crystals are
common and form the shape of a stubby cross.
streak The characteristic colour a mineral leaves when rubbed
across a streak plate (a streak-plate is a white, non-glossy,
ceramic tile).
topographical A map of an area showing the hills and valleys by using
m a p ‘topographic contour lines.’ It usually also contains much
information on roads, rivers, towns and other features you
may come across in a given area.
topography The general shape of the surface of the earth, particularly
used to define to the shape of the hills and valleys.
tourmaline A dark brown-to-black mineral which occurs as 3, 6 or 9-
sided, elongated prisms. The prisms are characteristically
striated along the long axis of the crystals.
travertine A dense, finely crystalline limestone which may be white,
tan or cream in colour. Usually formed around hot springs
or in limestone caves. A less compact variety is called tufa.
vein A thin, sheet-like fracture in a rock which is filled with
secondary minerals such as quartz or calcite.
wollastonite A metamorphic mineral found in altered limestones.
zeolite A large group of white or colourless hydrous aluminosilicate
minerals. Commonly fill cavities in basalt lavas.


50% rockhound and 50% wire wrap
       ='s one great pendant


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Re: B.C. Rockhounding Prt 2
« Reply #1 on: July 31, 2018, 08:21:54 PM »

Please, if this is copied and pasted from another persons web page. Please link to it in the top of the topic (and any other topic) and give them the credit for ownership.
This will avoid future copyright infringements.


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Re: B.C. Rockhounding Prt 2
« Reply #2 on: August 01, 2018, 07:23:00 PM »

if i can find it, found on scrap paper in my paper collection.  started effort years ago to add author, but this had none added.   delete if you must, mary...

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       ='s one great pendant


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Re: B.C. Rockhounding Prt 2
« Reply #3 on: December 25, 2018, 01:00:11 PM »

Here is the web page for BC Lapidary Society   Some of the posted links are out of date.
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